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Acknowledgement is due to the Institute of Certified Management Accountants for
permission to use questions and problems from past CMA Exams. The questions and
unofficial answers are copyrighted by the Certified Institute of Management Accountants
and have been used here with their permission.
The authors would also like to thank the Institute of Internal Auditors for permission to
use copyrighted questions and problems from the Certified Internal Auditor Examinations
by The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc., 247 Maitland Avenue, Altamonte Springs,
Florida 32701 USA. Reprinted with permission.
The authors also wish to thank the IT Governance Institute for permission to make use
of concepts from the publication Control Objectives for Information and related
Technology (COBIT) 3rd Edition, © 2000, IT Governance Institute, www.itgi.org.
Reproduction without permission is not permitted.